How is Diabetes diagnosed and monitored?
In Singapore, the diagnostic criteria for diabetes follow the guidelines set by the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the World Health Organization (WHO).
The common tests used for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes in Singapore include:
A1C test. This test measures the average blood glucose levels over the past two to three months. An A1C level of 6.5% or higher indicates diabetes.
Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) test. This test measures blood glucose levels after fasting for at least eight hours. A result of 126 mg/dL or higher indicates diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). This test involves drinking a glucose solution and measuring blood glucose levels at different intervals. A result of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates diabetes.
Random plasma glucose test. This test measures blood glucose levels at any time of the day. A result of 200 mg/dL or higher, along with symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes.
Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG). This involves using a glucometer to measure blood glucose levels at home. It is commonly used by people with diabetes to monitor their blood glucose levels throughout the day.
Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) systems. This involves wearing a small device that measures blood glucose levels throughout the day and sends the data to a receiver. It is commonly used by people with diabetes who require intensive monitoring and insulin therapy.
How to interpret blood sugar readings?
Interpreting blood sugar readings is essential for proper diabetes management. In Singapore, the target blood glucose levels for people with diabetes are:
- Fasting blood glucose: 4.4-7.0 mmol/L
- Pre-meal blood glucose: 4.4-7.0 mmol/L
- Post-meal blood glucose: <10.0 mmol/L
For those who have been diagnosed with diabetes, do work closely with your healthcare team to monitor your blood glucose levels and make necessary adjustments to your treatment plan.