Putting Orthopaedic Pieces Together: A Joint Effort
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What is Osteoarthritis?


Osteoarthritis (OA), often referred to as “wear and tear” arthritis, is a common degenerative joint condition characterized by the gradual breakdown of cartilage in the joints. Cartilage is the protective, cushioning tissue that covers the ends of bones in a joint, allowing for smooth and painless movement. When this cartilage deteriorates, it leads to various symptoms and functional limitations. Here’s a detailed explanation of osteoarthritis:


Causes and Risk Factors:

  • Age: Osteoarthritis is more common in older adults, as the wear and tear on joints accumulate over time.


  • Joint Overuse: Repetitive use or excessive stress on joints due to occupation or sports activities can contribute to OA.


  • Obesity: Being overweight places extra stress on weight-bearing joints like the knees, hips, and spine, increasing the risk of OA.


  • Genetics: A family history of OA can predispose individuals to the condition.


  • Joint Injuries: Previous joint injuries or trauma can increase the likelihood of OA in those joints.


  • Gender: OA is more common in women, especially after menopause.


  • Other Health Conditions: Conditions like rheumatoid arthritis and metabolic disorders can increase OA risk.



  • Joint Pain: The hallmark symptom of OA is joint pain that worsens with activity and eases with rest.


  • Stiffness: Affected joints may feel stiff, particularly in the morning or after periods of inactivity.


  • Reduced Range of Motion: OA can limit joint movement, making it difficult to bend, flex, or extend the joint fully.


  • Swelling: Swelling around the joint can occur due to inflammation.


  • Joint Grating: In some cases, there may be a sensation of joint grating or popping, caused by bone-on-bone contact.


Commonly Affected Joints:

  • Knees: OA in the knees can cause pain and difficulty with walking or climbing stairs.


  • Hips: Hip OA may lead to groin or buttock pain and reduced hip mobility.


  • Hands: Finger joints, particularly the base of the thumb and the joints closest to the fingertips, are commonly affected.


  • Spine: OA of the spine can cause back or neck pain and stiffness, and in severe cases, it can lead to nerve compression.



  • Diagnosis is typically based on a combination of clinical evaluation, medical history, physical examination, and imaging studies (X-rays or MRI) to assess joint damage.



  • Lifestyle Modifications: Weight management, regular exercise, joint protection techniques, and ergonomic adjustments can help manage symptoms and slow disease progression.


  • Physical Therapy: A physical therapist can provide exercises and techniques to improve joint function and reduce pain.


  • Medications: Over-the-counter pain relievers (e.g., acetaminophen, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs or NSAIDs) or prescription medications may be used to manage pain and inflammation.


  • Injections: Corticosteroid injections or hyaluronic acid injections may be recommended for certain joints.


  • Surgery: In severe cases with significant joint damage and pain, joint replacement surgery (e.g., knee or hip replacement) may be considered.


Osteoarthritis is a chronic condition that tends to progress slowly over time. While there is no cure, effective management strategies can help individuals with OA maintain an active lifestyle, manage pain, and improve joint function. Early diagnosis and appropriate treatment are crucial for optimizing quality of life for those with OA.